Friday, March 20, 2020
Ugly Genes Essays Ugly Genes Paper Ugly Genes Paper Why doesnt evolution get rid of ugly people? Based on the precepts of natural selection, species with inferior traits are bound to be wiped out with time, leaving only the fit species to survive and propagate future offspring of the same species. It is paradoxical, however, that some undesirable traits in some species keep on persisting, being passed on from one generation to another, defying the premises upon which natural selection stands. Why is it that the ugly, the unhealthy and the not so smart keep persisting in the world, yet based on the natural selection they are naturally supposed to fade away? The author posits that the not so attractive will logically not pass down their traits as no one would be interested to have them as their mates, the unhealthy will not live long to pass down their inferior traits and the dumb will be at a disadvantage in the acquisition of wealth and financial prosperity necessary to survive and raise a family (Begley, 2007). Looking around, abundant evidence still persists that seem to contr adict with the predictions of this theory of natural selection: ugly people still exist, there are dumb people around and the unhealthy as well. Why is this the case? What makes someone ugly According to the explanation offered by evolutionary genetics, this paradox is as a result of constant mutation of these undesirable traits keep persisting no matter how hard the process of natural selection kicks in to cleanse them. Scientists, however, do admit that the notion of constant mutation is farfetched and that there is a real reason to explain the paradox. Studies conducted at Edinburgh University, Scotland, have attempted to offer an explanation for this paradox; that the genes that are good for males are not desirable for females, and the reverse is also true. The scientists conducted the research on a population of 3,559 red deers inhabiting a Scottish island spanning eighteen generations (Earp, Sandberg, Savulescu, 2012). They documented every detail about the animals, from their fitness levels to their mating cycles to the off springs that managed to survive. The result of the research was contradictory; on average, male red deers with high fitness levels sired off springs with relatively low fitness levels. The reverse also held true; that male deer that had low reproductive success and fitness sired daughters that were relatively successful. This state of affairs could be explained by the fact that traits that are based on genes could have very different effects on males than on females. This analogy could be used to explain features in humans as well: a father might be having a shapely nose that would be expected to be described as hunky on males but not so good on females. As such a father would attract females who desire the desirable trait in the father, the result of their copulation might produce a daughter whose nose is far from shapely. Traits which evolutionary scientists describe as not good for mating in females persist because they are inherited by their sons in their DNA and are propagated when the sons sire their own daughters (Pennisi, 2012). Further studies try to explain the phenomenon of the persistence of undesirable genes despite natural selection. The most prominent one, perhaps, is the existence of the gene for sickle cell disease, which is more rampant in the Mediterranean regions as well as in Africa. Logically, it is expected that the process of natural selection would kick in and eliminate it, but it has not. It emerged that carrying a copy of such a gene would make one more resistant to malaria attacks, which are prevalent in these same regions (Pennisi, 2012). Natural selection essay The author poignantly cautions those who are obsessed with physical traits in the choice of their mates. He points to them that have the tendencies of rejecting their potential mates because they possess less than desirable traits and features, thinking that they would be doing a service for themselves and their future generations through the propagation of superior genes only. Natural selection, as demonstrated by the author, does not really work as people would expect. Although the author uses strong points to paint a picture that natural selection at times fails to eliminate the less desirable traits and that people should think twice before rejecting their potential spouse because they possess somewhat inferior traits, much is left to be desired of this proposition. For one, people have different preferences in selecting their mates and such evidence presented might not be useful in deterring people from overlooking the misfits and opting for the superior in the society. This is perhaps clearly demonstrated in cases where relatively successful individuals, in terms of wealth, success and fame flock together and establish their own families, oblivious of what natural selection might mean to their union. For some, the concept of natural selection does not even strike their radar, as they have already been swept by the love bug, choosing whomever they desire regardless of their genetic composition, whether desirable or not. Furthermore, the concept of natural selection stirs controversy as some closely associate it with evolution which goes against their beliefs. The author uses emotive terms that touch on the core of human characteristics-ugliness, dumbness, and health- to prove a point about natural selection. This, however, might not be well received by all members of the audience as it contravenes to their values and beliefs. Some, for instance, believe that we ate all beautiful and inferior or superior traits are subjective and should therefore not be used as a universal basis for drumming for the process of natural selection. Natural selection and evolutionary theories are refuted by others as they believe in a supreme being whose creations should not be measured, believing that the creator is infinitely wise, and thus no human scale should be used to determine what is desirable or not; only the creator knows (Begley, 2007). There are some cases where natural selection is at work. Research shows that the process is still at work as recent as the 19th century. The study conducted in Finland sought to explore the key signposts of natural selection: those who married and those who did not, those who lived beyond the age of 15, the number of marriages the population under study had, and the number of children sired in each marriage. Half of the study population died before reaching the age of 15, indicating that they possessed traits that did not favor natural selection. As such, none of their genes could not be passed to the next generation. 20 percent of the population did not marry and did not have children, implying that they possessed some undesirable traits that prevented them from obtaining spouses and transmitting their genes to the next generation. The author uses strong pathos, logos, and ethos in driving his point home with regards to the fallacy of natural selection, though evidence still exists that support that the process is still ongoing, despite the argument put forward by the author. References Begley, S. (2007). Why Doesnt Evolution Get Rid of Ugly People?. Newsweek. Retrieved 27 September 2016, from http://europe.newsweek.com/why-doesnt-evolution-get-rid-ugly-people-221992?rm=eu Earp, B., Sandberg, A., ; Savulescu, J. (2012). Natural Selection, Childrearing, and the Ethics of Marriage (and Divorce): Building a Case for the Neuroenhancement of Human Relationships. Philosophy ; Technology, 25(4), 561-587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13347-012-0081-8 Pennisi, E. (2012). Natural Selection Is Still With Us. Science | AAAS. Retrieved 27 September 2016, from sciencemag.org/news/2012/04/natural-selection-still-us
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Guide to Choosing Part Time Jobs for Students Working a part-time job while in college is very common. In fact, 70 percent of college students work part time while completing their degrees. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s to compensate for rising tuition costs or to supplement your student loan package, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for work at the start of the semester, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be the only one. But what kind of job is suitable for a college student to have? HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a simple guide to finding a part-time job while in college. Visit College Career Center Nearly all colleges have a student career center to help students look for employment and/or shape their career goals. Look for the resources that your institution offers first to see if anything is a good fit for you. Pick a Place that Supports Your Studies Some businesses love having students to fill in their part-time slots. And some places donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand that your main priority is your education. Make sure that they understand that your studies come first and that they canÃ¢â¬â¢t expect you to work the night shift the night before exams. Finding a place that can accommodate your class and study schedules is essential to making the work/study arrangement go smoothly. Location On-campus jobs are ideal as you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have to waste any time going to and from your job. Whether youÃ¢â¬â¢re working as a library assistant or helping one of your professors with their research, on-campus jobs are the perfect option. These days, remote work is becoming more and more popular, so you may be able to land a part-time job without even leaving your dorm room. You might find a job as an essay writer or do web design. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not able to land any on-campus jobs or remote work, make sure you choose a place thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a reasonable distance from your school. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not worth it for you to endure a long commute to and from a part-time job. Look for something closer to your school or home. Does it Pay Enough? YouÃ¢â¬â¢re probably looking for a job because you need some extra money to get you through to the end of the semester. Make sure that the hours and the pay are enough to meet your needs. If not, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be sacrificing study time for a job that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even serve its purpose. Plan a budget beforehand to make sure you know how much youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to make so you can decide which jobs are worth taking. Here are some salary negotiation tactics for college students. Hotel/Babysitting Some part-time jobs such as being the desk clerk at a hotel or babysitting involves a lot of free time where you can crack open the books and get some studying in while youÃ¢â¬â¢re on the clock. Those types of jobs are ideal for students. Training for Your Career It may be possible for you to work at a place that has to do with your major or future career plans. For example, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re studying education, you may find some part-time work at a local school. Or if youÃ¢â¬â¢re studying nursing, you might find some work at a health center. These jobs have the added benefit of giving you work experience before youÃ¢â¬â¢ve even completed your degree. Low Pressure ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important that you choose a job thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not particularly high stress, nor one that wears you out physically or emotionally. You want a job where you can clock out and walk away after your shift is done without it taking a toll on your non-working hours. Prioritize Whatever job you choose, keep in mind that your main focus right now is your education and that the job is secondary. After you graduate, you can focus on your career, but for now, your studies are your main priorities. Make sure this job isnÃ¢â¬â¢t taking over your study time.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Marketing Design Innovation - Assignment Example ke to the customers can be ascertained as that it provided a refreshing experience to the customers with greater taste along with refreshment (The Coca-Cola Company, 2010). Likewise, Diet Coke is totally free from sugar, which only includes 1 kilocalorie (kcal) for a diet coke of 250 millilitres (ml) consumed by the customers. It has been viewed that the needs of the customers have been frequently changing due to which Coca-Cola has taken the initiative of focusing on products such as Diet Coke and other light products that provide innovative packaging to the customers. Moreover, in order to address the changing requirements of the customers, the company has offered variation in its choices of products to customers that would match their preferences and lifestyle (The Coca-Cola Company, 2012). Diet Coke provides a huge value to the customers as the product has created the awareness of the customers regarding the maintenance of a healthy diet. Diet Coke has been developed in an innovative way and it has been the product that has responded to the trendy requirements of the customers (Bates, 2011). The company i.e. Coca-Cola has understood that through offering the product of Diet Coke, long-term growth can be achieved as it caters the emotional requirements of the customers. Diet Coke has been the product, which has crafted the message of bringing in an evolution within the customers experience that is totally driven towards their preferences and desires. It has been apparent that needs of the customers have been continuously changing and the company has adopted a perfect strategy by introducing Diet Coke in the market as the product tends to address the changing requirements of the customers (Bates, 2011). In the present day context, people have become more conscious about their health maintenance and Diet Coke has been the perfect product, which has been developed considering the aspect of health maintenance for customers. This particular factor has helped in
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Marketing Research Tools Paper wk 3 - Essay Example On the other hand, research areas having ample and reliable data available require use of information extracted from secondary sources. According to nature of sources and research methodology, different tools are selected and used by researchers. All these tools have their own use, advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, it is important for researchers to ensure that research tools are selected that are suitable for the nature of research approach i.e. primary and secondary and research methodologies i.e. quantitative and qualitative. Primary research itself consists of data collection from original resources. Primary research can employ qualitative and quantitative research methodologies and there are various tools that can be used for this research approach. Usual tools used for this research includes surveys, interviews, direct observations, experimentations, and focus groups. These tools help in collecting data that is specific to the needs of researcher. Furthermore, researcher s can levy necessary controls on the research process to maintain the integrity of data collected and using it appropriately for the purpose of research (Baker, 2012). Hence, it is possible for researchers to ensure that data collected is valid and trustworthy along with being authentic and reliable. These research tools are usually time and cost consuming however due to direct relevance to the research purpose, it is preferred for areas of research that have not been explored earlier or to corroborate with existing studies (Onkvisit & Shaw, 2008). As far as secondary research is concerned, it is use of data that is already available from existing sources. The tools available for secondary research include information available on the internet, market research conducted by government and individual market research firms, data available on firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ websites and stock exchange, information from public and private agencies, personal records and published print sources (peer-review ed papers, books and journals) (Baker, 2012). While using secondary data, it is important to ensure that the data is appropriate for the purpose of research. Relevance of data in terms of time period is another major issue that researchers need to take care of. However, sometimes use of secondary data is beneficial as it is readily available and relatively cheap (as the original research expenses have been already incurred). While performing primary and secondary research, quantitative and qualitative research methodologies can be used depending on the nature of research. While selecting a research methodology, the purpose of research and type of information required for the research is determined which further shapes the nature of research. In quantitative research, the usual tools used for primary research are surveys, financial figures produced by the entities themselves, experiments and numerical readings produced by them, statistical modeling and examination through stratificat ion and segmentation (Onkvisit & Shaw, 2008). These tools help in acquiring first hand information which is reliable, valid and objective yet expensive to acquire. For quantitative research to be performed through secondary sources, the tools used can be numeric modeling and statistical analysis. These tools are used to perform correlational analysis of data already available through print and electronic sources. Example of it can be examination of industry performance by performing statistical examination of market
Saturday, January 25, 2020
The Product Life Cycle TheÃ product life cycleÃ is an important concept in marketing.Ã It explains the stages a product goes through from when it was first thought of until it finally is removed from the market. All products does not reach this final stage.Ã Some continue to grow and others rise and fall.Ã So ,this is basically an idea of product life cycle. Product life-cycle managementÃ (orÃ PLCM) is the succession of strategies used by business management as a product goes through itsÃ life cycle . The situation or condition in which product is sold (advertising, saturation) keep changes over timeÃ . Aim The aim of P.L.C. are to minimize time to market, improve product quality, minimize prototyping costs, identify potential sales opportunities and revenue contributions, and minimise worst impacts at end-of-life. To create successful new products the company must comprehend its customers, markets and competitors.so the company focus on these factors. DEFINITION All products have a particular life time, which is called the product life cycle. The life of time a product is on the market is highly dependent on its competition, technology and even the understanding of a companys marketing department. One of the best ways of extending a products life cycle is to regularly collect feedback from consumers, finding out what they need and want from a particular product. Genrally product life cycle has four stages which are as follows: Introduction Stage After a company develops a product and tests its feasible among consumers, the product is usually introduced to the market. This first part of a products existence is called the introduction stage. A company is usually trying to build both advertising and brand awareness of the product in the introduction stage. So thats why the company cost remain relatively high.. The first pricing strategy would be to enter the market with a high price in hopes of regain initial production and advertising costs.. Growth Stage The growth stage is when product sales start to grow exponentially, especially when the product is at high demand. At this stage, competition will grow as other companies create competitive products. The market leader or first company in the industry to create the product will usually maintain its starting price as the sales are incrementing obviously price is acceptable to cuctomer. Saturation Stage Competition will eventually start reaching a saturation point over time. Companies will for a position in the market to compete with the leading company. At this point, it will be difficult for new competitors to enter into the market. Some may even go out of business. Market saturation will eventually force companies to lower prices. It is during this stage that consumer research is extremely important. A company will want to determine what features, styles or flavors of the product in question consumers want so it can differentiate its product from competitors. A company may also discover that the consumers want additional products. Hence, the companys best strategy is to extend its product line to include these additional products. Declining Sales Stage Eventually, product sales will start declining unless a company finds new uses or markets for its product. The decline stage may be haste occurence by new technology that replaces the outdated product. For example, the computer eventually replaced the typewriter. The company may also cut back on advertising during the decline stage. For example, black and white televisions are still in existence but are not promoted. sld00311.jpg (749-463) BEN SHARMAN Ben Sherman is a globally recognised lifestyle brand. It has grown from its business beginnings in quality shirts in Brighton in 1963 and is now sold in 35 countries around the world. It has expanded into the USA, Europe, and Australasia. In 2004, Ben Sherman was acquired by the American-based company, Oxford Industries. This group is an international apparel design, sourcing and marketing Ben Shermans name has always been closely linked with the British music scene and with fashion. Its customers are young and at the forefront of style. Throughout the years high profile customers include musicians, models, actors and bands, such as Blur, Oasis and the Kaiser Chiefs. The growth of the brand can be traced through changes in musical taste and this is a key part of Ben Shermans marketing strategy. Ben Sherman has developed a balanced marketing mix. This is often referred to as the 4 Ps product, price, promotion and place. By getting the mix right, the company ensures that its products reach the market segments it is aiming the brand at. This approach helps the business remain competitive and extends its market share and influence. The marketing mix is like a cake recipe. Most cakes need the basic ingredients of eggs, flour, sugar and milk. However, a childs birthday cake will require a different recipe to a wedding cake. The key is to combine the ingredients to get the right cake for the right occasion. The marketing mix works in exactly the same way. The key ingredients of product, price, promotion and place are all necessary for the appropriate marketing of the product. Ben Sherman chooses the right combination of each element to satisfy different customers needs. PRODUCT Ben Sherman has to decide whether to create a product and then market it to target customers (product-orientated) or find out what the market wants and then provide it (market-orientated) To achieve both, the company produces a wide product range that appeals to all its target market segments. The range includes casual clothes, formal wear, denim, footwear and lifestyle accessories, such as underwear, watches, bags, belts and fragrances. .Product life cycle Ben Sherman uses major fashion shows to launch its collections to the press. The fashion year has two cycles the spring/summer season and the autumn/winter one. The fashion industry is highly competitive and fast-moving. Fashion products tend to have a short life cycle. This means the time between the launch of a product and the point at which that product is mature is very quick. Competition amongst fashion retailers forces businesses to refresh their ranges a number of times in a year. This topping up modifies the product as it reaches the maturity stage. The boost of a new product or style then extends the life of the range. Products need refreshing to avoid the dip in sales during the Saturation stage of the life cycle which could result in an early decline. The additions and changes help sales rise again, earning extra sales revenue and profit, as well as maintaining the Ben Sherman brand in the market. PRICE Ben Sherman has to assess which markets its products are aimed at and set a price to match.There are a number of pricing strategies that a business can use for its products including: cost based pricing where the selling price is set to cover the cost of manufacture. market orientated pricing. Market orientated pricing covers several different approaches: market penetration, where a new product is priced low to attract a high volume of sales market skimming where a new product has premium pricing to give high revenues whilst the product is unique in the market premium pricing, where there is a uniqueness and exclusiveness about the product so that it can command a high price economy pricing, which tends to be for no-frills, basic products where the cost of manufacture and marketing are kept to a minimumThe price of a product relates to its perceived value. Lower priced items will expect a higher volume of sales, whilst fewer sales of luxury products may achieve the same revenue through higher pricing. Low price brands often copy the market leaders and may be generic own brands, such as those produced by supermarket chains. The main purpose of price here is to indicate value for- money and such brands do not expect customers to show loyalty. Ben Sherman produces mostly medium-price range products. Its position in the market for clothing is shown on the product map diagram. The mix of product and price is clearly evident here. These brands are identifiable by their quality and style. PLACE This refers both to the places where Ben Sherman products may be bought and to the channels of distribution used to deliver the products to these places. Place is not always a physical building such as a retail outlet or shop, but includes any means by which the product is made available to the customer.A business has to balance getting enough of its products to its target customers against the problems or costs of distributing them. PROMOTION The purpose of promotion is to obtain and retain customers. It covers: above-the-line, which is using independent media to reach a wide audience easily, but over which the company may have limited control, for example, magazine advertising. This reaches a mass audience but can be hard to measure its impact. below-the-line, which uses media over which the business has control, for example, direct mailing. This type of promotion can be more cost-effective and give more measurable response rates. CONCLUSION Ben Sherman is a brand that appeals to the youth market. Its responsiveness to changing tastes in fashion and music throughout the last fifty years has provided it with a unique heritage of quality, personality and style. This has made Ben Sherman into a great British icon, reflecting British culture as it does business across the world. Whilst each element of the marketing mix is important in its own right, the right balance of the four elements is critical. MAGGI Different phases product life cycle of maggi WhyÃ attanoodleÃ wasÃ aÃ failure? Strategies taken to establish new productcategory What measures NIL should take to sustain theimage of a popular brand image. Stage at which maggiis in the product lifecycle. PRODUCT LIFE Ã CYCLE A concept that provides a way to trace thestages of a productÃ ¶s acceptance, from itsintroduction (birth) to itsÃ decline (death) INTRODUCTORY STAGE High failure rates No competition Frequent product modification Limited distribution High marketing and production costs Promotion focuses on awareness andÃ information NestlÃ © India Ltd. (NIL), theÃ Indian subsidiary of the global FMCG major,NestlÃ © SA, introduced the Maggibrand in India in 1982, with its launch ofÃ Maggi2 MinuteÃ Noodles, an instantÃ noodles product GROWTH STAGE Increasing rateÃ of sales Entrance of competitors Initial healthy profits Promotion emphasizes brand ads Prices normally fall Development costs are recovered 10 yrs back itÃ enjoyed around 50% market share in thisÃ segment which was valued ataround 250 crores. . MATURITY STAGE Declining sales growth Saturated markets Extending product line Stylistic product changes Heavy promotions to dealers and consumers Prices and profits fall InÃ 2003Ã HindustanÃ LeverÃ LtdÃ was allÃ setÃ to take onÃ NestlesbestsellingÃ Maggi2-minute noodles by launching a new category of liquidÃ snacks under it foodbrand, KnorrAnnapurna DECLINE STAGE Long-run drop in sales Large inventories ofÃ unsold items Elimination of all non essentialmarketing expenses
Friday, January 17, 2020
Oregano Oregano (Scientific name: Origanum vulgare) is also known as Wild Marjoram, Mountain Mint, Origanum, Wintersweet and Winter Marjoram. This erectly spreading plant has strong aromatic characteristics, with leaves and stems that are fleshy. The leaves of oregano are heart-shaped, with toothed edges, and which, grow for up to 9 meters in length. In other countries, the plant is primarily used as a culinary ingredient. However, in countries like the Philippines, Oregano is a known herbal medicine for its strong anti-oxidant properties.Plant family: Lamiaceae (mint family). Oregano is more popularly known for its aromatic and balsamic flavor and is commonly used as mint flavoring in Mediterranean and Mexican foods. Oregano as used as herbal medicine has its earliest beginnings even in early Egyptian times and has been traditionally used as herbal remedy for skin burns, cuts and bruises. Because of the minty flavor of oregano, it is also used as herbal remedy for sore throat, asthm a, colds, coughs and flu. Oregano was first used by the Greeks. In their mythology the goddess Aphrodite invented the spice.Giving it to man to make his life happier. The word Ã¢â¬Å"oreganoÃ¢â¬ is actually derived from the Greek phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"joy of the mountainsÃ¢â¬ . Just married couples were crowned with wreaths of it. It was also put on graves to give peace to departed spirits. Ancient Greek physicians discovered that the herb had beneficial effects and prescribed it for a variety of ailments. Hippocrates used it as well as its close cousin, marjoram as an antiseptic. The Roman's, who later conquered Greece, would adopt much of the culture of the region. They tasted oregano and thought that it was good.The ease of its cultivation coupled with the Roman proclivity for the expansion of Empire would spread its use throughout Europe and much of Northern Africa. In these regions it was used to spice meats, fish, and even as a flavoring for wine. In the middle ages people conti nued to use it. Sharp spices were not common at this time. Oregano was one of the few food flavorings available to give variety to the daily fair. The people of the dark age cast about for medicinal properties in whatever form they could find. They would chew the oregano leaves as a cure for rheumatism, toothache, indigestion, and as a cough suppressant.Oregano found its way to China probably via the spice road that wended through the Middle-East during the Medieval period. Here again it was a medicinal herb. Doctors prescribed it to relieve fever, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, and itchy skin. Later, the English found a use for oregano as an additive to snuff (which was generally a tobacco concoction taken through the nose). It was also used as a perfume in sachets. In spite of its use in England, Oregano was little known in the United States prior to the Second World War. Soldiers discovered the flavors and aromas during the Italian Campaign and brought back the spice and the desir e for it.Related Studies Oil of Oregano According to Scott Gavura, the less evidence that exists to support the use of a treatment, the more passionate its supporters seem to be. I learned this early in my career as a pharmacist. One pharmacy I worked at did a steady business in essential oils. And king of the oils was oil of oregano. Not only were there several different brands of the basic oil, they were different forms, including capsules, creams and even nasal sprays. Not aware of any therapeutic benefits, I would ask customers what they were using it for.I rarely heard the same condition described: skin infections, athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s foot, head lice, colds, sore throats, Ã¢â¬Å"parasitesÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"yeastsÃ¢â¬ , diabetes, allergies and ringworm were apparently no match against the judicious use of oregano oil. Intrigued, I took a closer look. Long before our scientific understanding of bacteria and antimicrobials, infected wounds were packed with different products in an att empt to minimize the odor, and hopefully speed healing. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s likely that someone happened upon a fragrant herb and discovered that it seemed to help treat wounds (or at least, cover some of the smell).Given there have been some amazing drugs with powerful effects that have emerged from natural products, itÃ¢â¬â¢s certainly plausible that oil of oregano could have biological and therapeutic effects. Oregano (Origanum vulgare) leaves contain a wide variety of chemical compounds, including leanolic acids, ursolic acids, and phenolic glycosides. Phenolic compounds make up to 71% of the oil. Carvacrol, thymol, cymene, and terpinine and are found in oregano leaves and do appear to have biological effects. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s these chemicals that are proposed to be the parts with beneficial effects. EffectivenessWhen we contemplate administering a chemical to deliver a medicinal effect, we need to ask the following: Is it absorbed into the body at all? Does enough reach the right part of the body to have an effect? Does it actually work for the condition? Does it have any hazardous, unwanted effects? Can it be safely eliminated from the body? These questions are usually answered through a series of investigations, starting with preclinical (test-tube) studies, and moving into to animal trials, and then to human clinical trials that start with validating safety, and then progress to investigating efficacy and safety.The short answer is that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s little beyond animal studies to demonstrate that the ingredients in oregano oil have any effects. One of the best reviews seems to come from the McCormick Science Institute (yes, the spice company). They commissioned a paper on oregano by Keith Singletary that appeared in the journal Nutrition Today in 2010. Happily, though the journal is paywalled, McCormick is hosting the paper on its own website. 1. Is oil of oregano absorbed? Some parts of the oregano do appear to be absorbed but the bioavailability of its diffe rent chemical constituents has not been verified.So we canÃ¢â¬â¢t be certain which components are reaching the circulation. 2. Does enough reach the right part of the body to have any beneficial effect? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not clear where the chemicals in oil of oregano act in the body, as no research has been done to show that it is adequately absorbed. However, there is some evidence to suggest that oregano may be implicated in inducing abortions in mice, so some parts of the herb must be absorbed, if this a causal effect. When applied to body surfaces or skin for topical effect, oil of oregano is more likely to reach high concentrations, at least locally, and then possibly deliver a medicinal effect.This makes topical effects seem much more plausible than ones that require ingestion. 3. Does it actually work for the condition? There is no published evidence to demonstrate that that oil of oregano is effective for any medical condition or illness. The McCormick review notes that that da ta for every condition evaluated is Ã¢â¬Å"preliminary, inconclusive. Ã¢â¬ There is some very limited evidence to suggest that it might be useful for parasite infections Ã¢â¬â but given the evidence consists of only one study with 14 patients, and no placebo comparison, we really have no idea if the oregano oil itself was effective.LetÃ¢â¬â¢s consider how oil of oregano might treat an infection. Bacteria are killed by antimicrobials based on a specific dose-response relationship. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) must be reached at the site of an infection. Then thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a concentration range where the bacteria (or viruses, or fungi, or parasites, depending on what youÃ¢â¬â¢re treating) are killed, typically in rough proportion to the dose. Keep increasing the dose, and the effect plateaus.If you can hit the MIC without causing side effects or toxicity, congratulations: you have a potential therapeutic agent. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s some evidence out there demonstrat ing that oil of oregano will kill different species of bacteria, etc in the test tube or Petri dish ( in vitro). If I pour a pile of salt, lime juice, Cointreau, or tequila on a Petri dish, it will likely kill most bacteria too Ã¢â¬â but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean margaritas can treat pneumonia. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not difficult to kill bacteria if you change the conditions enough that it cannot live.So while itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to get high concentrations of oregano in a test tube and subsequent positive effects, these effects are meaningless in the human body unless we can achieve similar concentrations, without any toxicity. And this has not been demonstrated with oil of oregano, or its individual chemical ingredients. 4. Does oil of oregano have any hazardous, unwanted effects? Natural does not mean safe. There are some reports of gastrointestinal upset with oil of oregano. There are also reports of allergic reactions.There is no evidence to suggest that oil of oregano, used at high (medic inal) amounts, may be used safely in pregnant or breast feeding women. However, when used in cooking, and as part of a regular diet, there is also no evidence that causes harm in pregnancy or breastfeeding. Animal studies show that if you give enough carvacrol, it will kill, though. 5. Can oil of oregano be safely eliminated from the body? So little published research exists on oil of oregano there is no way to determine if oregano oil is non-toxic.Certainly, at low doses, when used as a food, there is no reason to have any concerns. But at higher doses, and particularly with regular use, there is no data to suggest itÃ¢â¬â¢s safe to consume all that carvacrol, thymol, cymene, and terpinine. As we have no idea if and how oregano oil works, we have no information to estimate what a proper dose might be. Doses published by manufacturers are not based on any published evidence. Conclusion Oil of oregano, and the claims attached to it, is a great example of how interesting laboratory findings can be wildly exaggerated to imply meaningful effects in humans.A few small studies have been conducted, mainly in the lab, and advocates argue this is evidence of effectiveness. The rest is all anecdotes. Despite the hype, there is no persuasive evidence to demonstrate that oil of oregano does anything useful in or on our bodies. And while it is popular, there is no science to support the use of oil of oregano for any medical condition. Suggesting that this herb is can effectively treat serious medical conditions like diabetes, asthma, and cancer is foolish and dangerous. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re ill, stick to the proven science, and save your oregano for cooking.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Asia Passmore Mr. Nelson DP Lit Jan 6 Barriers Children with parents from different countries may experience conflict within their household based upon barriers. Such as Language barriers and cultural barriers. Especially in this case conflict is happening between mothers and daughters. Women from second and third world countries have a different mindset than women raised in a first world country like America. Like the mothers in Amy TanÃ¢â¬â¢s The Joy Luck Club who were born and raised in china with chinese thinking and chinese ways, unlike their American raised daughters. Cultural conflict and intergenerational conflict is apparent but it is also shown how despite that TanÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Jing mei is what most call Americanized being raised in the states she grew up with more opportunities to make her own decisions people influencing her to become what is known as independent. As it goes on she also feels like she is disappointing her mother every day she believes her mom has given up all hope .Ã¢â¬ Even wo rse, I asked her what frightened me the most why had she given up hope?Ã¢â¬ (Tan 143). While thinking of the jade pendent her mother gave her Jing Mei recalls the memory of when she realized her mother truly loved, and wanted the best for her it was Chinese New Year after the dinner she had with the other members of Joy Luck. During dinner Jing mei tries to grab the crab with the missing leg for herself she also gets Insulted by Waverly Jong completely embarrassing her in front of everyone at the table. After dinner her mother tries to cheer her up she points out that Jing Mei is different Ã¢â¬Å"Only you pick that crab. Nobody else take it i already know this. Everybody else want best quality. You thinking different. (Tan 208) Jing Mei does not see the best quality, she doesn t see the best quality in the crab, and she never saw it in herself she usually thought of herself as a failure. Suyuan notices this about Jing and she thinks itÃ¢â¬â¢s good that she isn t generic like Wa verly. Despite Jing Mei spending most of her childhood blaming her mother for the way she is, Suyuan still loves her and after awhileShow MoreRelatedFamily Violence Is Systems Theory1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbecome patterned behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Sutphin, McDonough, Schrenkel, 2013) Every family member that is within this family are characterized as subsystems. The main sub-systems are parent-parent, parent-child, and child-child. In most cases, what happens in the parent-parent relationship impacts both the parent-child relationship and the child-child relationship. A type of violence that can occur between the parent and parent relationship is domestic violence. 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